1 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Rural India faces serious shortages-power, water, health facilities, roads, etc, these are known and recognized. However, the role of technology in solving these and other problems is barely acknowledged and the actual availability of technology in rural areas is marginal. The backbone of the rural economy is agriculture, which also provides sustenance to over half the country's population. The 'green revolution' of the 1970s was, in fact, powered by the scientific work in various agricultural research institutions. While some fault the green revolution for excessive exploitation of water and land resources through overuse of fertilizers, it did bring about a wheat surplus and prosperity in certain pockets of the country.
In rural India today, there is a dire inadequacy of both science (i.e., knowledge) and technology (which derives from science and manifests itself in physical form). The scope to apply technology to both farm and non-farm activities in rural areas is huge, as are the potential benefits. In fact, crop yields are far lower than what they are in demonstration farms, where science and technology are more fully applied. Technologies that reduce power consumption of pumps are vital, unfortunately, their use is minimal, since agricultural power is free or largely subsidized. Similarly, there is little incentive to optimise through technology or otherwise-water use, especially in irrigated areas (a third of total arable land), given the water rates, Post-harvest technologies for processing and adding value could greatly enhance rural employment and incomes but at present deployment of technology is marginal. Cold storage and cold chains for transportation to market is of great importance for many agricultural products-particularly, fruits and vegetables, but are non-existent. These are clearly technologies with an immediate return on investment, and benefits for all, the farmer, the end-consumer, the technology provider.
However, regulatory and structural barriers are holding back investments. Power is a key requirement in rural areas, for agricultural as well as domestic uses. Technology can provide reliable power at comparatively low cost in a decentralized manner. However, this needs to be upgraded and scaled in a big way, with emphasis on renewable and non-polluting technologies. Reliable and low cost means of transporting goods and people is an essential need for rural areas. The bullock-cart and the tractor-trailer are present vehicles of choice. Surely, technology can provide a better, cheaper and more efficient solution? Information related to commodity prices, agricultural practices, weather, etc, are crucial for the farmer. Technology can provide these through mobile phones, which is a proven technology however, the challenge to ensure connectivity remains. Thus, there is a pressing need for technology as currently economic growth-though skewed and iniquitous-has created an economically attractive market in rural India.
Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?
(A) In recent times, the benefits of science and technology have not been felt in agriculture.
(B) The current means of rural transportation are ideal i.e., low cost and non-polluting.
(C) Agriculture provides livelihood to over 50% of the Indian population.
A.  A and B
B.  Only B
C.  Only C
D.  A and C
E.  None of these
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2 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Rural India faces serious shortages-power, water, health facilities, roads, etc, these are known and recognized. However, the role of technology in solving these and other problems is barely acknowledged and the actual availability of technology in rural areas is marginal. The backbone of the rural economy is agriculture, which also provides sustenance to over half the country's population. The 'green revolution' of the 1970s was, in fact, powered by the scientific work in various agricultural research institutions. While some fault the green revolution for excessive exploitation of water and land resources through overuse of fertilizers, it did bring about a wheat surplus and prosperity in certain pockets of the country.
In rural India today, there is a dire inadequacy of both science (i.e., knowledge) and technology (which derives from science and manifests itself in physical form). The scope to apply technology to both farm and non-farm activities in rural areas is huge, as are the potential benefits. In fact, crop yields are far lower than what they are in demonstration farms, where science and technology are more fully applied. Technologies that reduce power consumption of pumps are vital, unfortunately, their use is minimal, since agricultural power is free or largely subsidized. Similarly, there is little incentive to optimise through technology or otherwise-water use, especially in irrigated areas (a third of total arable land), given the water rates, Post-harvest technologies for processing and adding value could greatly enhance rural employment and incomes but at present deployment of technology is marginal. Cold storage and cold chains for transportation to market is of great importance for many agricultural products-particularly, fruits and vegetables, but are non-existent. These are clearly technologies with an immediate return on investment, and benefits for all, the farmer, the end-consumer, the technology provider.
However, regulatory and structural barriers are holding back investments. Power is a key requirement in rural areas, for agricultural as well as domestic uses. Technology can provide reliable power at comparatively low cost in a decentralized manner. However, this needs to be upgraded and scaled in a big way, with emphasis on renewable and non-polluting technologies. Reliable and low cost means of transporting goods and people is an essential need for rural areas. The bullock-cart and the tractor-trailer are present vehicles of choice. Surely, technology can provide a better, cheaper and more efficient solution? Information related to commodity prices, agricultural practices, weather, etc, are crucial for the farmer. Technology can provide these through mobile phones, which is a proven technology however, the challenge to ensure connectivity remains. Thus, there is a pressing need for technology as currently economic growth-though skewed and iniquitous-has created an economically attractive market in rural India.
What has hampered investment in post harvest technologies?
A.  Cost of implementing such technology is higher than the returns
B.  No tangible benefits to technology suppliers
C.  Obstacles from statutory authorities
D.  Rapid economic growth has drawn investors away from agriculture to more commercially viable sectors
E.  None of these
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3 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Rural India faces serious shortages-power, water, health facilities, roads, etc, these are known and recognized. However, the role of technology in solving these and other problems is barely acknowledged and the actual availability of technology in rural areas is marginal. The backbone of the rural economy is agriculture, which also provides sustenance to over half the country's population. The 'green revolution' of the 1970s was, in fact, powered by the scientific work in various agricultural research institutions. While some fault the green revolution for excessive exploitation of water and land resources through overuse of fertilizers, it did bring about a wheat surplus and prosperity in certain pockets of the country.
In rural India today, there is a dire inadequacy of both science (i.e., knowledge) and technology (which derives from science and manifests itself in physical form). The scope to apply technology to both farm and non-farm activities in rural areas is huge, as are the potential benefits. In fact, crop yields are far lower than what they are in demonstration farms, where science and technology are more fully applied. Technologies that reduce power consumption of pumps are vital, unfortunately, their use is minimal, since agricultural power is free or largely subsidized. Similarly, there is little incentive to optimise through technology or otherwise-water use, especially in irrigated areas (a third of total arable land), given the water rates, Post-harvest technologies for processing and adding value could greatly enhance rural employment and incomes but at present deployment of technology is marginal. Cold storage and cold chains for transportation to market is of great importance for many agricultural products-particularly, fruits and vegetables, but are non-existent. These are clearly technologies with an immediate return on investment, and benefits for all, the farmer, the end-consumer, the technology provider.
However, regulatory and structural barriers are holding back investments. Power is a key requirement in rural areas, for agricultural as well as domestic uses. Technology can provide reliable power at comparatively low cost in a decentralized manner. However, this needs to be upgraded and scaled in a big way, with emphasis on renewable and non-polluting technologies. Reliable and low cost means of transporting goods and people is an essential need for rural areas. The bullock-cart and the tractor-trailer are present vehicles of choice. Surely, technology can provide a better, cheaper and more efficient solution? Information related to commodity prices, agricultural practices, weather, etc, are crucial for the farmer. Technology can provide these through mobile phones, which is a proven technology however, the challenge to ensure connectivity remains. Thus, there is a pressing need for technology as currently economic growth-though skewed and iniquitous-has created an economically attractive market in rural India.
What is the role of mobile technology in the rural economy?
(A) It will not play a large role since the technology is largely untested.
(B) It provides opportunities for farmers manipulate commodity prices.
(C) It will largely be beneficial since such technology is cheap.
A.  (A) and (C)
B.  Only (A)
C.  (B) and (C)
D.  Only (B)
E.  None of these
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4 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Rural India faces serious shortages-power, water, health facilities, roads, etc, these are known and recognized. However, the role of technology in solving these and other problems is barely acknowledged and the actual availability of technology in rural areas is marginal. The backbone of the rural economy is agriculture, which also provides sustenance to over half the country's population. The 'green revolution' of the 1970s was, in fact, powered by the scientific work in various agricultural research institutions. While some fault the green revolution for excessive exploitation of water and land resources through overuse of fertilizers, it did bring about a wheat surplus and prosperity in certain pockets of the country.
In rural India today, there is a dire inadequacy of both science (i.e., knowledge) and technology (which derives from science and manifests itself in physical form). The scope to apply technology to both farm and non-farm activities in rural areas is huge, as are the potential benefits. In fact, crop yields are far lower than what they are in demonstration farms, where science and technology are more fully applied. Technologies that reduce power consumption of pumps are vital, unfortunately, their use is minimal, since agricultural power is free or largely subsidized. Similarly, there is little incentive to optimise through technology or otherwise-water use, especially in irrigated areas (a third of total arable land), given the water rates, Post-harvest technologies for processing and adding value could greatly enhance rural employment and incomes but at present deployment of technology is marginal. Cold storage and cold chains for transportation to market is of great importance for many agricultural products-particularly, fruits and vegetables, but are non-existent. These are clearly technologies with an immediate return on investment, and benefits for all, the farmer, the end-consumer, the technology provider.
However, regulatory and structural barriers are holding back investments. Power is a key requirement in rural areas, for agricultural as well as domestic uses. Technology can provide reliable power at comparatively low cost in a decentralized manner. However, this needs to be upgraded and scaled in a big way, with emphasis on renewable and non-polluting technologies. Reliable and low cost means of transporting goods and people is an essential need for rural areas. The bullock-cart and the tractor-trailer are present vehicles of choice. Surely, technology can provide a better, cheaper and more efficient solution? Information related to commodity prices, agricultural practices, weather, etc, are crucial for the farmer. Technology can provide these through mobile phones, which is a proven technology however, the challenge to ensure connectivity remains. Thus, there is a pressing need for technology as currently economic growth-though skewed and iniquitous-has created an economically attractive market in rural India.
Which of the following is currently not a threat to the rural economy?
(A) Inadequate rural infrastructure such as roads.
(B) Excessive utilisation of technology.
(C) Fluctuating power supply.
A.  Only C
B.  Only A
C.  B and C
D.  Only B
E.  None of these
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5 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Rural India faces serious shortages-power, water, health facilities, roads, etc, these are known and recognized. However, the role of technology in solving these and other problems is barely acknowledged and the actual availability of technology in rural areas is marginal. The backbone of the rural economy is agriculture, which also provides sustenance to over half the country's population. The 'green revolution' of the 1970s was, in fact, powered by the scientific work in various agricultural research institutions. While some fault the green revolution for excessive exploitation of water and land resources through overuse of fertilizers, it did bring about a wheat surplus and prosperity in certain pockets of the country.
In rural India today, there is a dire inadequacy of both science (i.e., knowledge) and technology (which derives from science and manifests itself in physical form). The scope to apply technology to both farm and non-farm activities in rural areas is huge, as are the potential benefits. In fact, crop yields are far lower than what they are in demonstration farms, where science and technology are more fully applied. Technologies that reduce power consumption of pumps are vital, unfortunately, their use is minimal, since agricultural power is free or largely subsidized. Similarly, there is little incentive to optimise through technology or otherwise-water use, especially in irrigated areas (a third of total arable land), given the water rates, Post-harvest technologies for processing and adding value could greatly enhance rural employment and incomes but at present deployment of technology is marginal. Cold storage and cold chains for transportation to market is of great importance for many agricultural products-particularly, fruits and vegetables, but are non-existent. These are clearly technologies with an immediate return on investment, and benefits for all, the farmer, the end-consumer, the technology provider.
However, regulatory and structural barriers are holding back investments. Power is a key requirement in rural areas, for agricultural as well as domestic uses. Technology can provide reliable power at comparatively low cost in a decentralized manner. However, this needs to be upgraded and scaled in a big way, with emphasis on renewable and non-polluting technologies. Reliable and low cost means of transporting goods and people is an essential need for rural areas. The bullock-cart and the tractor-trailer are present vehicles of choice. Surely, technology can provide a better, cheaper and more efficient solution? Information related to commodity prices, agricultural practices, weather, etc, are crucial for the farmer. Technology can provide these through mobile phones, which is a proven technology however, the challenge to ensure connectivity remains. Thus, there is a pressing need for technology as currently economic growth-though skewed and iniquitous-has created an economically attractive market in rural India.
Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?
(A) About 33% of arable land in India is irrigated.
(B)There is hardly any motivation to utilise technology to optimise water usage among farmers.
(C) Climatic information can easily be made available to farmers.
A.  All A,B and C
B.  A and B
C.  Only A
D.  B and C
E.  None of these
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6 . In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each , five words are suggested , one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case
Hundreds of plants and animals are $(1)$ every day due to deforestation and urbanization, what might happen if this continues in the future? The last mass extinction of plant and animal species occurred 65 million years ago with the Dinosaurs. In all, five mass extinctions have occurred and scientists $(2)$ earth is in the sixth mass extinction. The world as it is now is threatened, including people, who are responsible for earth's $(3)$. Pesticides contaminating water; overharvesting of animals and plants; air pollution; illegal fishing and the clearing of land are direct results of urbanization and deforestation. People have $(4)$ and damaged almost half of earth's land, at a very unsustainable rate.
Global warming is having a serious impact as well. A six-degree Celsius increase in global temperature killed 95% of all species on Earth 251 million years ago. An increase of six-degrees Celsius is forecast this century if a change is not made to $(5)$ the damage done to earth. Humans will be one of the 95% of species lost.
$(1)$
A.  killing
B.  alive
C.  born
D.  left
E.  lost
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7 . In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each , five words are suggested , one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case
Hundreds of plants and animals are $(1)$ every day due to deforestation and urbanization, what might happen if this continues in the future? The last mass extinction of plant and animal species occurred 65 million years ago with the Dinosaurs. In all, five mass extinctions have occurred and scientists $(2)$ earth is in the sixth mass extinction. The world as it is now is threatened, including people, who are responsible for earth's $(3)$. Pesticides contaminating water; overharvesting of animals and plants; air pollution; illegal fishing and the clearing of land are direct results of urbanization and deforestation. People have $(4)$ and damaged almost half of earth's land, at a very unsustainable rate.
Global warming is having a serious impact as well. A six-degree Celsius increase in global temperature killed 95% of all species on Earth 251 million years ago. An increase of six-degrees Celsius is forecast this century if a change is not made to $(5)$ the damage done to earth. Humans will be one of the 95% of species lost.
$(2)$
A.  speak
B.  told
C.  estimation
D.  believe
E.  consider
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8 . In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each , five words are suggested , one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case
Hundreds of plants and animals are $(1)$ every day due to deforestation and urbanization, what might happen if this continues in the future? The last mass extinction of plant and animal species occurred 65 million years ago with the Dinosaurs. In all, five mass extinctions have occurred and scientists $(2)$ earth is in the sixth mass extinction. The world as it is now is threatened, including people, who are responsible for earth's $(3)$. Pesticides contaminating water; overharvesting of animals and plants; air pollution; illegal fishing and the clearing of land are direct results of urbanization and deforestation. People have $(4)$ and damaged almost half of earth's land, at a very unsustainable rate.
Global warming is having a serious impact as well. A six-degree Celsius increase in global temperature killed 95% of all species on Earth 251 million years ago. An increase of six-degrees Celsius is forecast this century if a change is not made to $(5)$ the damage done to earth. Humans will be one of the 95% of species lost.
$(3)$
A.  shape
B.  development
C.  deterioration
D.  warmth
E.  expansion
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9 . In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each , five words are suggested , one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case
Hundreds of plants and animals are $(1)$ every day due to deforestation and urbanization, what might happen if this continues in the future? The last mass extinction of plant and animal species occurred 65 million years ago with the Dinosaurs. In all, five mass extinctions have occurred and scientists $(2)$ earth is in the sixth mass extinction. The world as it is now is threatened, including people, who are responsible for earth's $(3)$. Pesticides contaminating water; overharvesting of animals and plants; air pollution; illegal fishing and the clearing of land are direct results of urbanization and deforestation. People have $(4)$ and damaged almost half of earth's land, at a very unsustainable rate.
Global warming is having a serious impact as well. A six-degree Celsius increase in global temperature killed 95% of all species on Earth 251 million years ago. An increase of six-degrees Celsius is forecast this century if a change is not made to $(5)$ the damage done to earth. Humans will be one of the 95% of species lost.
$(4)$
A.  altered
B.  created
C.  produced
D.  made
E.  brought
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10 . In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each , five words are suggested , one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case
Hundreds of plants and animals are $(1)$ every day due to deforestation and urbanization, what might happen if this continues in the future? The last mass extinction of plant and animal species occurred 65 million years ago with the Dinosaurs. In all, five mass extinctions have occurred and scientists $(2)$ earth is in the sixth mass extinction. The world as it is now is threatened, including people, who are responsible for earth's $(3)$. Pesticides contaminating water; overharvesting of animals and plants; air pollution; illegal fishing and the clearing of land are direct results of urbanization and deforestation. People have $(4)$ and damaged almost half of earth's land, at a very unsustainable rate.
Global warming is having a serious impact as well. A six-degree Celsius increase in global temperature killed 95% of all species on Earth 251 million years ago. An increase of six-degrees Celsius is forecast this century if a change is not made to $(5)$ the damage done to earth. Humans will be one of the 95% of species lost.
$(5)$
A.  void
B.  dissipate
C.  augment
D.  reverse
E.  increase
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