1 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
The passage lays emphasis on which of the following central theme(s)?
(i) The abysmally throwaway prices offered for food commodities
(ii) The worldwide acute shortage of food commodities
(ii) Promoting the use of bio-fuel for automobiles
A.  Only I
B.  Only II
C.  Only III
D.  All the three
E.  None of these
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2 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Which of the following best explains the phrase 'this phenomenon' as used in the fourth paragraph of the passage?
A.  Volatility in commodity markets which has led to hoarding
B.  Escalating food prices caused by high interest rates
C.  Easy liquidity because of lack of investment in America
D.  Weakening of the US dollar and consequent variability in commodity markets
E.  Fluctuation in energy prices and outdated public policy
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3 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Which of the following situations has/have prompted investors to look towards commodity markets?
(i) Dip in rates of interest in the US
(ii) Easy liquidity
(iii)Volatility in commodity prices
A.  Only (i) and (ii)
B.  Only (ii) and (iii)
C.  Only (i) and (iii)
D.  All the three
E.  None of these
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4 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Which of the following statements is TRUE in the context of the passage?
A.  Commodity markets have become erratic due to easy liquidity and low interest rate.
B.  Governments of many countries have begun paying better prices for food commodities to ensure their farmers are taken care of.
C.  Farmers in developing countries have to compulsorily produce a certain quantity of bio-fuels annually
D.  The financialisation of commodity trade has resulted in a dip in prices of food products.
E.  The weakening of other currencies against the US dollar has resulted in high fuel prices.
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5 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Which of the following shows a cause-effect relationship between its two components
A.  Reduction in interest rates and abundance of food commodities
B.  Reduction in energy prices and increase in food commodity prices
C.  Turbulence in financial markets and escalation in production of food commodities
D.  Dipping of US dollar value and volatility in commodity markets
E.  Injection of liquidity and the drop in investor confidence
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6 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Which of the following can be thought of as a measure to remedy the global situation mentioned in the passage?
(i) Reducing the production of cars and thereby the demand for energy
(ii) Inducing farmers to increase their food and other agricultural produce
(iii)Increasing the prices of food items to compensate farmers for their losses
A.  Only I
B.  Only I and II
C.  Only II
D.  Only II and III
E.  None of these
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7 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Choose the abed which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in bold as used in the passage
$VOLATILITY$
A.  agitation
B.  effervescence
C.  optimism
D.  disparity
E.  inactivity
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8 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Choose the abed which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in bold as used in the passage
$CONSENSUS$
A.  deviant
B.  disagreement
C.  dejection
D.  denial
E.  dessuasion
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9 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold used in the passage.
$TURBULENCE $
A.  tranquiilty
B.  certainty
C.  turmoil
D.  restless
E.  lacklustre
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10 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. The current global food situation is very serious and hence we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period.
It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost-push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices.
Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy-induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the US and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the $turbulence$ in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater $volatility$ in commodity markets. The weakening of the US dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across-the-board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public polity responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy-induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of ability in real sector especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general $consensus$ that public in regard to food in many economies around the world not provided adequate $Incentive$ to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
$INCENTIVE $
A.  acceleration
B.  surplus
C.  baiting
D.  inspiration
E.  encouragement
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