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1 . In the following passage, some of the words have been left out, each of which is indicated by a number. Find the suitable word from the options given against each number and fill up the blanks with appropriate words to make the paragraph meaningfully complete.

RBI governor Raghuram Rajan demonstrated that he meant to go beyond platitudes on financial inclusion by setting up a committee on financial services for small businesses and low-income households. The committee, headed by Nachiket Mor, has lots on its $(1)$, including a proposal to give official $(2)$ to a new segment of nonbanking finance companies (NBFCs) that specifically $(3)$ to small production units and low-income households. The proposal, made by Chennai-based Shriram Capital Ltd, $(4)$ serious consideration. Particularly when it echoes the views of a government-appointed Key Advisory Group on the subject.

The RBI's long-term regulatory thrust has been to $(5)$ NBFCs to extinction, seeing them as vermin that gnaw away at probity and prudence in the world of finance. The RBI wants banks to take over all the functions that are $(6)$by NBFCs. Over the years, the RBI has $(7)$ down the number of NBFCs that are allowed to take deposits from 1,420 in 1998 to 311 in 2010. The regulations that govern them have $(8)$been tightened. At the same time, banks have failed to $(9)$the responsibility of meeting the credit requirements of India's teeming, diverse, dynamic and under-funded unorganised sector. The sector $(10)$ 78% of its credit needs from NBFCs, moneylenders and other informal sources. And at an exorbitant cost.
$(6)$
performed
worked
finished
served
contrived
2 . In the following passage, some of the words have been left out, each of which is indicated by a number. Find the suitable word from the options given against each number and fill up the blanks with appropriate words to make the paragraph meaningfully complete.

RBI governor Raghuram Rajan demonstrated that he meant to go beyond platitudes on financial inclusion by setting up a committee on financial services for small businesses and low-income households. The committee, headed by Nachiket Mor, has lots on its $(1)$, including a proposal to give official $(2)$ to a new segment of nonbanking finance companies (NBFCs) that specifically $(3)$ to small production units and low-income households. The proposal, made by Chennai-based Shriram Capital Ltd, $(4)$ serious consideration. Particularly when it echoes the views of a government-appointed Key Advisory Group on the subject.

The RBI's long-term regulatory thrust has been to $(5)$ NBFCs to extinction, seeing them as vermin that gnaw away at probity and prudence in the world of finance. The RBI wants banks to take over all the functions that are $(6)$by NBFCs. Over the years, the RBI has $(7)$ down the number of NBFCs that are allowed to take deposits from 1,420 in 1998 to 311 in 2010. The regulations that govern them have $(8)$been tightened. At the same time, banks have failed to $(9)$the responsibility of meeting the credit requirements of India's teeming, diverse, dynamic and under-funded unorganised sector. The sector $(10)$ 78% of its credit needs from NBFCs, moneylenders and other informal sources. And at an exorbitant cost.
$(7)$
turned
noted
brought
null
came
3 . In the following passage, some of the words have been left out, each of which is indicated by a number. Find the suitable word from the options given against each number and fill up the blanks with appropriate words to make the paragraph meaningfully complete.

RBI governor Raghuram Rajan demonstrated that he meant to go beyond platitudes on financial inclusion by setting up a committee on financial services for small businesses and low-income households. The committee, headed by Nachiket Mor, has lots on its $(1)$, including a proposal to give official $(2)$ to a new segment of nonbanking finance companies (NBFCs) that specifically $(3)$ to small production units and low-income households. The proposal, made by Chennai-based Shriram Capital Ltd, $(4)$ serious consideration. Particularly when it echoes the views of a government-appointed Key Advisory Group on the subject.

The RBI's long-term regulatory thrust has been to $(5)$ NBFCs to extinction, seeing them as vermin that gnaw away at probity and prudence in the world of finance. The RBI wants banks to take over all the functions that are $(6)$by NBFCs. Over the years, the RBI has $(7)$ down the number of NBFCs that are allowed to take deposits from 1,420 in 1998 to 311 in 2010. The regulations that govern them have $(8)$been tightened. At the same time, banks have failed to $(9)$the responsibility of meeting the credit requirements of India's teeming, diverse, dynamic and under-funded unorganised sector. The sector $(10)$ 78% of its credit needs from NBFCs, moneylenders and other informal sources. And at an exorbitant cost.
$(8)$
grisly
largely
naturally
formally
4 . In the following passage, some of the words have been left out, each of which is indicated by a number. Find the suitable word from the options given against each number and fill up the blanks with appropriate words to make the paragraph meaningfully complete.

RBI governor Raghuram Rajan demonstrated that he meant to go beyond platitudes on financial inclusion by setting up a committee on financial services for small businesses and low-income households. The committee, headed by Nachiket Mor, has lots on its $(1)$, including a proposal to give official $(2)$ to a new segment of nonbanking finance companies (NBFCs) that specifically $(3)$ to small production units and low-income households. The proposal, made by Chennai-based Shriram Capital Ltd, $(4)$ serious consideration. Particularly when it echoes the views of a government-appointed Key Advisory Group on the subject.

The RBI's long-term regulatory thrust has been to $(5)$ NBFCs to extinction, seeing them as vermin that gnaw away at probity and prudence in the world of finance. The RBI wants banks to take over all the functions that are $(6)$by NBFCs. Over the years, the RBI has $(7)$ down the number of NBFCs that are allowed to take deposits from 1,420 in 1998 to 311 in 2010. The regulations that govern them have $(8)$been tightened. At the same time, banks have failed to $(9)$the responsibility of meeting the credit requirements of India's teeming, diverse, dynamic and under-funded unorganised sector. The sector $(10)$ 78% of its credit needs from NBFCs, moneylenders and other informal sources. And at an exorbitant cost.
$(9)$
overtake
shoulder
eye
handle
5 . In the following passage, some of the words have been left out, each of which is indicated by a number. Find the suitable word from the options given against each number and fill up the blanks with appropriate words to make the paragraph meaningfully complete.

RBI governor Raghuram Rajan demonstrated that he meant to go beyond platitudes on financial inclusion by setting up a committee on financial services for small businesses and low-income households. The committee, headed by Nachiket Mor, has lots on its $(1)$, including a proposal to give official $(2)$ to a new segment of nonbanking finance companies (NBFCs) that specifically $(3)$ to small production units and low-income households. The proposal, made by Chennai-based Shriram Capital Ltd, $(4)$ serious consideration. Particularly when it echoes the views of a government-appointed Key Advisory Group on the subject.

The RBI's long-term regulatory thrust has been to $(5)$ NBFCs to extinction, seeing them as vermin that gnaw away at probity and prudence in the world of finance. The RBI wants banks to take over all the functions that are $(6)$by NBFCs. Over the years, the RBI has $(7)$ down the number of NBFCs that are allowed to take deposits from 1,420 in 1998 to 311 in 2010. The regulations that govern them have $(8)$been tightened. At the same time, banks have failed to $(9)$the responsibility of meeting the credit requirements of India's teeming, diverse, dynamic and under-funded unorganised sector. The sector $(10)$ 78% of its credit needs from NBFCs, moneylenders and other informal sources. And at an exorbitant cost.
$(10)$
affords
completes
filled
meets
requisite
6 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases in the passage are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Irrigation poses the greatest challenge for a farmersince water availability needs to be there almost throughout the year. Monsoon failure means fall in yield and farmers are the direct sufferers when the rains are inadquate.'Especially in a country like India, the unseasonal and unpredictable weather, especially when it turns into droughts, forces agriculture scientists and farmers to think of alternative simple and effective solutions to overcome the crises,' says Dr IS Tomar, Programme Coordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Indian Council of AgricultureResearch (ICAR) near Rajgarh Naka, Jhabua.

One case study that has been quite popular is use of$discarded$ plastic saline bottles for irrigation by farmers in Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh. Basically a tribaldominated dry region, agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the people there. Maize, blackgram, soyabean,wheat, and cotton are normally grown.

To $enhance$ income of the farmers of the area, anattempt was made to introduce improved vegetable cultivation under National Agricultural Innovation SubProject called Integrated Farming System for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in $undulating$and rainfed areas. Mr Ramash Bariya, a small farmer from the village, started growing vegetables under this project guidance ina small area. He got a good profit initially and this encouraged him to start growing some gourd varieties like bitter and sponge gourds. He prepared a small nursery for raising the seedlings but faced acute water shortage due to delayed monsoon.

Worried, he discussed with NAIP project scientists, who advised him to adopt an innovative irrigation technique using waste saline bottle.

'We wanted to try out this method in the farmer's field since it is quite cheap and effective and farmers who cannot financially afford big drip systems can try this. But farmers should realise that it requires labour and patience,' says Dr Tomar.

In this technique, the bottom portion of the bottle is removed using a $sharp$ knife and the bottle filled with water. It is hung upside-down from a stake next to the sapling in the field. The plastic tube with the nozzle is made to touch the ground near the plant root.

Instead of allowing water to be irrigated through the channels in the field or pouring it on the crop with a bucket, water starts dripping on the soil surface making the root zone wet, thereby supplying moisture continuously to the crop.

The plastic control knob in the middle of the tube can be adjusted to control the drip. The farmer purchased about 350 bottles from a waste paper mart and started using them for his cultivation. His entire family used to help him in filling the bottles with water.

'I have been able to get a net profit of 15,200 from less than a hectare till date by using this method for my vegetables,' says the farmer.

The state agriculture department conferred an achievement award on him for adopting this simple yet effective method to overcome water shortage. Many others in the surrounding areas have also started adopting this method for their crops.

According to Dr Tomar, this type of irrigation is quite popular in African countries like Kenya. Many American farmers are also using this system to grow their kitchen gardens.

But in India it is not popular. The reason could be that it is time-consuming and labour-intensive.

Though today there are several government schemes and subsidies available to instal a full-fledged drip irrigation system, the paperwork involved is quite laborious and delays cultivation work.
Which of the following is the characteristic feature of Indian agriculture? Give your answer in the context of the passage
Agriculture is amongst the fastest-growing industries in India
India is amongst the top three global producers of many crops, including wheat, rice, pulses and vegetables
Farmers in India largely depend on monsoon
Scientific research and development has reduced farmers' dependence on monsoon
The average size of land holding is very small
7 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases in the passage are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Irrigation poses the greatest challenge for a farmersince water availability needs to be there almost throughout the year. Monsoon failure means fall in yield and farmers are the direct sufferers when the rains are inadquate.'Especially in a country like India, the unseasonal and unpredictable weather, especially when it turns into droughts, forces agriculture scientists and farmers to think of alternative simple and effective solutions to overcome the crises,' says Dr IS Tomar, Programme Coordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Indian Council of AgricultureResearch (ICAR) near Rajgarh Naka, Jhabua.

One case study that has been quite popular is use of$discarded$ plastic saline bottles for irrigation by farmers in Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh. Basically a tribaldominated dry region, agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the people there. Maize, blackgram, soyabean,wheat, and cotton are normally grown.

To $enhance$ income of the farmers of the area, anattempt was made to introduce improved vegetable cultivation under National Agricultural Innovation SubProject called Integrated Farming System for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in $undulating$and rainfed areas. Mr Ramash Bariya, a small farmer from the village, started growing vegetables under this project guidance ina small area. He got a good profit initially and this encouraged him to start growing some gourd varieties like bitter and sponge gourds. He prepared a small nursery for raising the seedlings but faced acute water shortage due to delayed monsoon.

Worried, he discussed with NAIP project scientists, who advised him to adopt an innovative irrigation technique using waste saline bottle.

'We wanted to try out this method in the farmer's field since it is quite cheap and effective and farmers who cannot financially afford big drip systems can try this. But farmers should realise that it requires labour and patience,' says Dr Tomar.

In this technique, the bottom portion of the bottle is removed using a $sharp$ knife and the bottle filled with water. It is hung upside-down from a stake next to the sapling in the field. The plastic tube with the nozzle is made to touch the ground near the plant root.

Instead of allowing water to be irrigated through the channels in the field or pouring it on the crop with a bucket, water starts dripping on the soil surface making the root zone wet, thereby supplying moisture continuously to the crop.

The plastic control knob in the middle of the tube can be adjusted to control the drip. The farmer purchased about 350 bottles from a waste paper mart and started using them for his cultivation. His entire family used to help him in filling the bottles with water.

'I have been able to get a net profit of 15,200 from less than a hectare till date by using this method for my vegetables,' says the farmer.

The state agriculture department conferred an achievement award on him for adopting this simple yet effective method to overcome water shortage. Many others in the surrounding areas have also started adopting this method for their crops.

According to Dr Tomar, this type of irrigation is quite popular in African countries like Kenya. Many American farmers are also using this system to grow their kitchen gardens.

But in India it is not popular. The reason could be that it is time-consuming and labour-intensive.

Though today there are several government schemes and subsidies available to instal a full-fledged drip irrigation system, the paperwork involved is quite laborious and delays cultivation work.
Why do agriculture scientists in India carry out scientific research?
To compete with agricultural productivity across the world
To face unseasonal and unpredictable weather in India
To satisfy an urge to help farmers and encourage them for more production
Due to pressure created by the Central government
All the above
8 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases in the passage are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Irrigation poses the greatest challenge for a farmersince water availability needs to be there almost throughout the year. Monsoon failure means fall in yield and farmers are the direct sufferers when the rains are inadquate.'Especially in a country like India, the unseasonal and unpredictable weather, especially when it turns into droughts, forces agriculture scientists and farmers to think of alternative simple and effective solutions to overcome the crises,' says Dr IS Tomar, Programme Coordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Indian Council of AgricultureResearch (ICAR) near Rajgarh Naka, Jhabua.

One case study that has been quite popular is use of$discarded$ plastic saline bottles for irrigation by farmers in Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh. Basically a tribaldominated dry region, agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the people there. Maize, blackgram, soyabean,wheat, and cotton are normally grown.

To $enhance$ income of the farmers of the area, anattempt was made to introduce improved vegetable cultivation under National Agricultural Innovation SubProject called Integrated Farming System for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in $undulating$and rainfed areas. Mr Ramash Bariya, a small farmer from the village, started growing vegetables under this project guidance ina small area. He got a good profit initially and this encouraged him to start growing some gourd varieties like bitter and sponge gourds. He prepared a small nursery for raising the seedlings but faced acute water shortage due to delayed monsoon.

Worried, he discussed with NAIP project scientists, who advised him to adopt an innovative irrigation technique using waste saline bottle.

'We wanted to try out this method in the farmer's field since it is quite cheap and effective and farmers who cannot financially afford big drip systems can try this. But farmers should realise that it requires labour and patience,' says Dr Tomar.

In this technique, the bottom portion of the bottle is removed using a $sharp$ knife and the bottle filled with water. It is hung upside-down from a stake next to the sapling in the field. The plastic tube with the nozzle is made to touch the ground near the plant root.

Instead of allowing water to be irrigated through the channels in the field or pouring it on the crop with a bucket, water starts dripping on the soil surface making the root zone wet, thereby supplying moisture continuously to the crop.

The plastic control knob in the middle of the tube can be adjusted to control the drip. The farmer purchased about 350 bottles from a waste paper mart and started using them for his cultivation. His entire family used to help him in filling the bottles with water.

'I have been able to get a net profit of 15,200 from less than a hectare till date by using this method for my vegetables,' says the farmer.

The state agriculture department conferred an achievement award on him for adopting this simple yet effective method to overcome water shortage. Many others in the surrounding areas have also started adopting this method for their crops.

According to Dr Tomar, this type of irrigation is quite popular in African countries like Kenya. Many American farmers are also using this system to grow their kitchen gardens.

But in India it is not popular. The reason could be that it is time-consuming and labour-intensive.

Though today there are several government schemes and subsidies available to instal a full-fledged drip irrigation system, the paperwork involved is quite laborious and delays cultivation work.
According to the given passage, which of the following is true about Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh?
It is a tribal-dominated region
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the people living over there
It is basically a humid region
Only 1 and 2
All 1,2 and 3
9 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases in the passage are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Irrigation poses the greatest challenge for a farmersince water availability needs to be there almost throughout the year. Monsoon failure means fall in yield and farmers are the direct sufferers when the rains are inadquate.'Especially in a country like India, the unseasonal and unpredictable weather, especially when it turns into droughts, forces agriculture scientists and farmers to think of alternative simple and effective solutions to overcome the crises,' says Dr IS Tomar, Programme Coordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Indian Council of AgricultureResearch (ICAR) near Rajgarh Naka, Jhabua.

One case study that has been quite popular is use of$discarded$ plastic saline bottles for irrigation by farmers in Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh. Basically a tribaldominated dry region, agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the people there. Maize, blackgram, soyabean,wheat, and cotton are normally grown.

To $enhance$ income of the farmers of the area, anattempt was made to introduce improved vegetable cultivation under National Agricultural Innovation SubProject called Integrated Farming System for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in $undulating$and rainfed areas. Mr Ramash Bariya, a small farmer from the village, started growing vegetables under this project guidance ina small area. He got a good profit initially and this encouraged him to start growing some gourd varieties like bitter and sponge gourds. He prepared a small nursery for raising the seedlings but faced acute water shortage due to delayed monsoon.

Worried, he discussed with NAIP project scientists, who advised him to adopt an innovative irrigation technique using waste saline bottle.

'We wanted to try out this method in the farmer's field since it is quite cheap and effective and farmers who cannot financially afford big drip systems can try this. But farmers should realise that it requires labour and patience,' says Dr Tomar.

In this technique, the bottom portion of the bottle is removed using a $sharp$ knife and the bottle filled with water. It is hung upside-down from a stake next to the sapling in the field. The plastic tube with the nozzle is made to touch the ground near the plant root.

Instead of allowing water to be irrigated through the channels in the field or pouring it on the crop with a bucket, water starts dripping on the soil surface making the root zone wet, thereby supplying moisture continuously to the crop.

The plastic control knob in the middle of the tube can be adjusted to control the drip. The farmer purchased about 350 bottles from a waste paper mart and started using them for his cultivation. His entire family used to help him in filling the bottles with water.

'I have been able to get a net profit of 15,200 from less than a hectare till date by using this method for my vegetables,' says the farmer.

The state agriculture department conferred an achievement award on him for adopting this simple yet effective method to overcome water shortage. Many others in the surrounding areas have also started adopting this method for their crops.

According to Dr Tomar, this type of irrigation is quite popular in African countries like Kenya. Many American farmers are also using this system to grow their kitchen gardens.

But in India it is not popular. The reason could be that it is time-consuming and labour-intensive.

Though today there are several government schemes and subsidies available to instal a full-fledged drip irrigation system, the paperwork involved is quite laborious and delays cultivation work.
Which of the following is not true about waste saline water irrigation technique?
It is an effective irrigation technique
It is helpful for such farmers as are not financially strong enough to afford big drip system
It requires a lot of labour and patience
This technique is quite popular in some of the African countries
None of these
10 . Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases in the passage are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Irrigation poses the greatest challenge for a farmersince water availability needs to be there almost throughout the year. Monsoon failure means fall in yield and farmers are the direct sufferers when the rains are inadquate.'Especially in a country like India, the unseasonal and unpredictable weather, especially when it turns into droughts, forces agriculture scientists and farmers to think of alternative simple and effective solutions to overcome the crises,' says Dr IS Tomar, Programme Coordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Indian Council of AgricultureResearch (ICAR) near Rajgarh Naka, Jhabua.

One case study that has been quite popular is use of$discarded$ plastic saline bottles for irrigation by farmers in Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh. Basically a tribaldominated dry region, agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the people there. Maize, blackgram, soyabean,wheat, and cotton are normally grown.

To $enhance$ income of the farmers of the area, anattempt was made to introduce improved vegetable cultivation under National Agricultural Innovation SubProject called Integrated Farming System for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in $undulating$and rainfed areas. Mr Ramash Bariya, a small farmer from the village, started growing vegetables under this project guidance ina small area. He got a good profit initially and this encouraged him to start growing some gourd varieties like bitter and sponge gourds. He prepared a small nursery for raising the seedlings but faced acute water shortage due to delayed monsoon.

Worried, he discussed with NAIP project scientists, who advised him to adopt an innovative irrigation technique using waste saline bottle.

'We wanted to try out this method in the farmer's field since it is quite cheap and effective and farmers who cannot financially afford big drip systems can try this. But farmers should realise that it requires labour and patience,' says Dr Tomar.

In this technique, the bottom portion of the bottle is removed using a $sharp$ knife and the bottle filled with water. It is hung upside-down from a stake next to the sapling in the field. The plastic tube with the nozzle is made to touch the ground near the plant root.

Instead of allowing water to be irrigated through the channels in the field or pouring it on the crop with a bucket, water starts dripping on the soil surface making the root zone wet, thereby supplying moisture continuously to the crop.

The plastic control knob in the middle of the tube can be adjusted to control the drip. The farmer purchased about 350 bottles from a waste paper mart and started using them for his cultivation. His entire family used to help him in filling the bottles with water.

'I have been able to get a net profit of `15,200 from less than a hectare till date by using this method for my vegetables,' says the farmer.

The state agriculture department conferred an achievement award on him for adopting this simple yet effective method to overcome water shortage. Many others in the surrounding areas have also started adopting this method for their crops.

According to Dr Tomar, this type of irrigation is quite popular in African countries like Kenya. Many American farmers are also using this system to grow their kitchen gardens.

But in India it is not popular. The reason could be that it is time-consuming and labour-intensive.

Though today there are several government schemes and subsidies available to instal a full-fledged drip irrigation system, the paperwork involved is quite laborious and delays cultivation work.
What, according to the given passage, is/are the main hindrance in the way of adopting waste saline water irrigation technique in India?
It is a time-consuming and labour-intensive technique
Waste saline water bottles are not readily available.
This technique is not effective in dry regions
Waste saline water bottles are fragile and brittle
All the above