1 . (1-8 Questions) Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Thinking of what education might look like in the next decade, one quickly realizes that the trends in technology are leaving a large number of our students behind. Today is an age of exponential change. New and ever-improving technologies are popping up every day and in every corner of society.
Educating the best and the brightest in this brave new world will take a new and improved educational $paradigm$. Allowing our educational tools to age in the corner of the classroom will be the mistake that may cost us our future. Throwing away masses of children to $inequitable$ access will ensure that we $languish$ at the bottom of the global pool of employable workers for decades to come.
Technology will shape in a way we educate students in the next decade. A user is not simply a person who uses. For the student, being a user should involve using the latest technology in a free and $autonomous$ manner. This new-found freedom will allow the student to become an active participant in his/her education instead of a passive passenger. In our current technological society, being a user also means being tracked. Tracking a student means having the ability to target education towards weaknesses and strengths. The ability to accurately customize curricula to the individual has been the holy grail of educational philosophy for many years. This golden age of technological development may soon enable this dream to become a reality.
Current educational curricula and individual assessment is $arbitrary$ at best. Accurately assessing a student can only be achieved by using modern tracking and database technologies. Imagine a world where every child has a tablet computer with ready access to the internet. Further, imagine that every student can access all the knowledge of humankind freely at any moment in time. Continue to imagine a world where a misspelled word brings up a spelling challenge application instead of an auto correction. Try to contemplate what it would mean for a teacher to have a database of every misspelled word, every misunderstood concept or every missed, equation for each of their students. Try to envision a teacher with the ability to customize the experience of the individual 'user' with minimal effort. Imagine the curriculum being automatically targeted to the user through an intuitive educational platform that knows all strengths and each unique weakness. In the last few hundred years, most individuals would consider an education as something you receive. You often hear the question asked, 'Where did you receive your education?' As we proceed through the next decade, education will slowly move away from reception and toward being custom designed for the individual user. New technology will not only allow us to receive an education, but also develop an education. The question we might ask in ten years, 'How did you develop your education?' The question of where will still be important, but the how of the matter will be the focus that defines the individual.
To make this a reality we will need a standardized platform from which to develop a student's unique education. This standardized platform will allow us to tailor a custom curriculum that will be matched to talents, interests and life goals. For the educator, a standardized platform will create a way to assist the student in discovering a true purpose in life through a unique educational experience. The basics of reading, writing and arithmetic will not be taught as much as they will be discovered and used. Learning will become a $reciprocal$ experience between the teacher, the student and the machine.
Under a standardized platform, each of these three participants will have a role to play. The teacher will be the facilitator, assisting the development of the curriculum and inspiring the direction the student takes. The student will be the user, gathering resources, skills and knowledge in an efficient and measured sequence. The machine will do the work of data gathering and analysis, which will assist the teacher and student in refining the curriculum. This data gathering work of the machine will also free the teacher from the burden of record-keeping and tedious tasks that currently distract from the real job of teaching and learning.
Under a standardized system, grade level will be far less important. Achievement and progression will be measured by accomplishment and intelligence as a benchmark for success. The question of failure or success will be irrelevant and replaced with a standard and consistent measurement of potential and overall intelligence. Information will no longer be missed but continually rehearsed and monitored for retention by the machine. Tasks such as data tracking, reporting and record keeping are currently accomplished manually. These tasks could easily be delegated to an intuitive database. Developing a standard to follow would eliminate these tasks and free the teacher to do their main job of teaching students.
The next decade may mark the moment in history when all are granted equal access to technology. Access to quality education will only be gained through investment and universal standardization of this technology. If we continue to divert wealth towards fruitless goals and corporate greed, this opportunity will be lost or hopelessly delayed.
According to the author, which of the following will be the benefit(s) of introducing a standardized technological platform?
(A) Potential of a child will take precedence over the grades he/she scores.
(B) Improving the educational syllabus would become easier.
(C) Teachers would be able to devote more time to teaching.
A.  Only C
B.  All A,B and C
C.  Only B and C
D.  Only A and B
E.  Only A
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2 .
Which of the following is/are true in the context of the passage?
(A) In the presence of technology each student would require constant monitoring by other individuals to maximize learning.
(B) Educational philosophy is based on the belief of tailoring educational syllabus to individual student capability.
(C) The author visualizes that each student 'will have access to technology in the future.
A.  Only A and B
B.  Only B
C.  Only C
D.  Only B and C
E.  All A,B and C
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3 .
Which of the following is possibly the most appropriate title for the passage?
A.  Technology - A Welcome Relief to Teachers
B.  Revamping the Educational Sector - An Impossible Future
C.  Education - Arbitrary But a Reality
D.  Technology and the Economy
E.  Technology - Reshaping the Future of Education
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4 .
How, according to the author, will the perception towards education change over the next decade?
A.  Where an individual gets his education will gain increasing importance
B.  Education will be viewed as a prerogative of the elite only
C.  Creativity in an individual will be regarded as needless
D.  The importance of education will decline
E.  None of these
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5 .
What does the author mean by the term 'tracking a student'?
A.  Analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of a student and designing an educational syllabus accordingly
B.  Assessing whether a student is paying due attention to the existing curriculum offered by an institute of learning
C.  Analyzing the positives and negatives of an educational institute and modifying it suitably to cater to industrial requirements
D.  Following a student to the educational institute that he visits frequently in order to estimate the time he spends there
E.  None of these
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6 .
According to the author, why is the current education provided not satisfactory?
A.  The teachers providing education are not qualified enough to emphasize on quality
B.  Quality of education provided is not uniform across the globe and individual assessment is subjective
C.  The educational sector is fraught with corrupt practices and thus does not produce the desired result
D.  The education system is not guided by technology and hence the pace of learning is slow
E.  There are too many schools in the country which cannot be monitored effectively
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7 .
What is the author's vision regarding the integration of technology with education?
(A) A substantial database consisting of each student's learning curve would be readily available.
(B) An error would activate a software which would encourage learning rather than auto-correcting.
(C) Experimentation in academics would be encouraged.
A.  Only C
B.  Only A and B
C.  All A,B and C
D.  Only A and C
E.  None of these
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8 .
How has the author defined the term 'user' ?
A.  One who invests in the latest technology even when it is beyond his/her means
B.  One who uses available technology to the maximum and for the longest period
C.  One who freely and actively participates in acquiring skills and knowledge in a systematic manner
D.  Anyone who invests in technology as per his/her requirement and where with all
E.  None of these
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9 . (9-16 Questions) Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Keshava, the washerman had a donkey. They worked together all day, and Keshava would pour out his heart to the donkey. One day, Keshava was walking home with the donkey when he felt tired. He tied the donkey to a tree and sat down to rest for a while, near a school. A window was open, and through it, a teacher could be heard scolding the students, 'Here I am, trying to turn you donkeys into human beings, but you just won't study! As soon as Keshava heard these words, his ears pricked up. A man who could actually turn donkeys into humans! This was the answer to his prayers. Impatiently, he waited for school to be over that day. When everyone had gone home, and only the teacher $remained$ behind to check some papers, Keshava entered the classroom.
'How can I help you?' asked the teacher. Keshava scratched his head and said, 'I heard what you said to the children. This donkey is my companion. If you made it human, we could have such good times together.' The teacher decided to $trick$ Keshava. He pretended to think for a while and then said, 'Give me six months and it will cost you a thousand rupees.' The washerman agreed and rushed home to get the money. He then left the donkey in the teacher's care.
After the six months were up, Keshava went to the teacher. The teacher had been using the donkey for his own work. Not wanting to give it up, he said, 'Oh, your donkey became so clever that it ran away. He is the headman of the next village.' When Keshava reached the next village he found the village elders sitting under a tree, discussing serious problems. How surprised they were when Keshava marched up to the headman, grabbed his arm and said, ' How dare you? You think you are so clever that you ran away? Come home at once!'
The headman understood someone had played a trick on Keshava. 'I am not your donkey!' he said. 'Go find the sage in the forest.' Keshava found the sage sitting under a tree with his eyes closed, $deep$ in meditation. He crept up and grabbed the sage's beard. 'Come back home now!' he shouted. The startled sage somehow calmed Keshava. When he heard what had happened. He had a good laugh. Then he told the washerman kindly, 'The teacher made a fool of you. Your donkey must be still with him. Go and take it back from him. Try to make some real friends, who will talk with you and share your troubles. A donkey will never be able to do that!' Keshava returned home later that day with his donkey, sadder and wiser.
Which of the following can be said about the teacher?
A.  He had the ability to transform animals into human beings
B.  He took advantage of Keshava's simple nature
C.  He had plotted with the village headman to cheat Keshava
D.  He enjoyed teaching children though he was poorly paid
E.  He was honest and used Keshava's money to care for the donkey
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10 .
Why did Keshava talk to his donkey while working?
A.  He wanted to practise his communication skills because he wanted to make friends
B.  To entertain himself because he found his work monotonous
C.  The donkey helped him to find answers to his problems
D.  He regarded the donkey as his friend and confided in him
E.  He believed the donkey to be a human being in disguise
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11 .
Which of the following is NOT true in the context of the passage?
A. The donkey was overburdened by the teacher.
B. The teacher was cunning by nature.
C. The sage laughed at Keshava and treated him unkindly.
A.  Both A and C
B.  Both B and C
C.  Only B
D.  All A,B and C
E.  None of these
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12 .
What made Keshava pull the sage's beard?
A.  He wanted to wake up the sage who was asleep under the tree
B.  The headman requested him to move the sage from under the tree
C.  He wanted the sage to explain what had happened to the donkey
D.  He misunderstood the village headman and took the sage to be his donkey
E.  None of these
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13 .
Why did the teacher ask Keshava to leave to donkey with him for six months?
(A) He realised that the donkey would require a lot of training.
(B) To reduce Keshava's dependence on the donkey.
(C) He wanted to rescue the donkey from Keshava who did not know how to treat the donkey properly.
A.  Only A
B.  Only B
C.  Both A and B
D.  Only C
E.  None of these
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14 .
Why was Keshava keen to meet the teacher one day?
A.  Keshava wanted to ask the teacher how to make his donkey a better companion
B.  He wanted to learn more prayers as he was devout
C.  He had been reliably informed that the teacher had changed donkey into human beings
D.  He needed the teacher's words of advice and wanted to study
E.  None of these
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15 .
How did Keshava get his donkey back?
A.  He threatened to take the teacher to the village elders
B.  The sage told Keshava the truth that donkey was with the teacher
C.  He asked the village headman for help
D.  The teacher returned it on learning that Keshava had not learnt his lesson
E.  None of these
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16 .
Why did Keshava interrupt the discussion among the village elders?
A.  He did not agree with their views on different issues
B.  To confront the headman who had cheated him out of one thousand rupees
C.  He wanted them to get justice for him
D.  He was looking for the donkey and wanted to ask for directions
E.  None of these
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17 . (17-26 Questions)Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

There was a country long time ago where the people would change a king every year. The person who would become the king had to agree to a $contract$ that he would be sent to an island after one year of his being a king.
One king had finished his term and it was time for him to go to the island and live there. The people dressed him up in expensive clothes and put him on an elephant and took him around the cities to say goodbye to all the people. This was a moment of sadness for all kings who ruled for one year. After $bidding$ farewell, the people took the king to a remote island in a boat and left him there. On their way back, they discovered a ship that had sunk just recently. They saw a young man who had $survived$ by holding on to a floating piece of wood. As they needed a new king, they picked up the young man and took him to their country. They requested him to be king for a year. First he refused but later he agreed to be the king. People told him about all the rules and regulations and that how he would be sent to an island after one year.
After three days of being a king, he asked the ministers if they could show him the island where all the other kings were sent. They agreed and took him to the island. The island was covered with a thick Jungle and sounds of $vicious$ animals were heard coming out of it. The king went a little bit further to check. Soon he discovered dead bodies of all the past kings. He understood that as soon as they were left on the island, the wild animals had come and killed them.
The king went back to the country and collected 100 strong workers. He took them to the island and instructed them to clean the jungle, remove all the deadly animals and cut down all excess trees. He would visit the island every month to see how the work was progressing. In the first month, all the animals were removed and many trees were cut down. In the second month, the whole island was cleaned out. The king then told the workers to plant gardens in various parts of the island. He also took with himself useful animals like chickens, ducks, birds, goats, cows etc. In the third month, he ordered the workers to build big houses and docking stations for ships. Over the months, the island turned into a beautiful place. The young king would wear simple clothes and spend very little from his earnings as a king. He sent all the earnings to the island for storage. When nine months passed like this, the king called the ministers and told them: 'I know that I have to go the island after one year, but I would like to go there right now.' But the ministers didn't agree to this and said that he had to wait for another three months to complete the year.
Three months passed and now it was a full year. The people dressed up the young king and put him on an elephant to take him around the country to say goodbye to others. However, this king was unusually happy to leave the kingdom. People asked him, 'All the other kings would cry at this moment. Why is it that you are laughing?' He replied, 'Don't you know what the wise people say? They say that when you come to this world as a baby, you are crying and everyone else is smiling. Live such a life that when you die, you will be smiling and everyone around you will be crying. I have lived that life. While all the other kings were lost into the luxuries of the kingdom, I always thought about the future and planned for it. I turned the deadly island into a beautiful $abode$ for me where I can stay peacefully.'
Why did the people of the kingdom change the king every year?
A.  As their first king had invented this system and had recorded it in the form of a contract
B.  As they believed that the new king would bring better ideas to the kingdom
C.  As they wanted their king to relax on an island after one year of hard work
D.  Not mentioned in the passage
E.  None of the above
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18 .
What would happen to the king once his term of one year was over ?
A.  He would be paraded in the cities as a farewell and then be taken to a remote island
B.  He would be gifted with expensive clothes and jewellery
C.  He would be sent on an island which required a lot of work to be done
D.  He would be asked to buy an elephant and go to the remote island himself
E.  None of the above
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19 .
What did the young man notice on his visit to the remote island after three days of being king?
A.  That the animals on the island were too many to be killed
B.  That the island was very big
C.  That the jungle on the island was full of animals that had killed all the previous kings placed on the island
D.  That the island was very beautiful and clean
E.  Not mentioned in the passage
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20 .
What happened to the island in the first month of the young king's tenure?
(A) The wild animals were removed from the island.
(B) The whole island was cleaned.
(C) Many unnecessary trees were cut down.
A.  Only A
B.  Only B
C.  Only C
D.  B and C
E.  A and C
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21 .
What could be said about the island after the young king had made his servants work on it ?
A.  The dangerous island had been turned to a beautiful place
B.  The island still remained the same despite all the young king's efforts
C.  The island was barely tolerable now
D.  The island was safe from all types of attacks
E.  None of the above
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22 .
Which of the following describes the young king correctly?
(A) He was intelligent
(B) He had foresight
(C) He was cunning
A.  Only A
B.  A and B
C.  Only C
D.  B and C
E.  All A,B and C
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23 .
What was the king's request to the ministers after the completion of nine months?
A.  That he should not be sent to the island after completion of one year
B.  That he would like to go to the island immediately
C.  That he should be paid more in order to improve work on the island
D.  That he should be sent to the island after a year
E.  None of the above
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24 .
How did the young king arrange for money on the island?
A.  By selling a large amount of his property
B.  By spending all the money derived from his income as a king
C.  By borrowing money from the ministers and sending it to the island
D.  By spending very less of his income as a king and sending it to the island for storage
E.  None of the above
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25 .
Why were the people of the kingdom puzzled when the young king was taken around the country to say goodbye to everyone?
A.  As they could not believe that one year had elapsed so soon
B.  As they were nor aware that the young king was actually a wise sage
C.  As the young king was happy to go to the island unlike the previous kings
D.  Not mentioned in the passage
E.  None of the above
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26 .
What can possibly be the moral of the story?
A.  Always put others before yourself
B.  Give respect to others
C.  Live in the present and forget about the future
D.  Do not put things off until tomorrow
E.  Always think and plan ahead
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27 . (27-33 Questions) Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Once upon a time there lived a queen in the city of Benaras. Her name was Khema and she was the wife of King Bahuputtaka. One night, the queen had a dream of a beautiful golden goose that spoke with great wisdom, almost as if he was a sage. She told her husband that she desperately wanted to see a bird just like the one in her dream. So the king asked his ministers to find out all that they could about a bird such as this. He was told that such a bird did exist but was extremely rare and difficult to find. They advised him to build a beautiful lake on the outskirts of Benaras so that he may attract such rare and lovely creatures to reside there. In this way the queen might have her wish.
Towards the north, on Mount Cittakuta, there lived about ninety thousand wild geese headed by beautiful golden goose called king Dhatarattha. He got to hear of this $exquisite$ lake surrounded by water lilies and lotuses floating on the surface. The king had invited all the birds to come and live on it, promising that none 'of them would ever be harmed. Corn was scattered on a daily basis in order to attract the bird. So a couple of geese went up to their king, the golden goose and told him that they were quite tired of living up on the mountains and would like to see this wonderful lake where they had been promised food and protection. The king agreed to their request and took the flock down south, towards Benaras. Meanwhile, at the lake king Bahuputtaka had placed hunters all around in order to capture any golden goose :that happened to pass by: So the next morning when the headhunter saw this flock of geese approaching he was very excited to see their golden leader. He immediately went about setting up a $snare$ amongst the water lilies and lotuses, as he knew that the leader would definitely be the first to alight.
The whole flock came flying down in one mighty swoop and as expected it was the king's foot that touched the water first. He was ensnared and could' not escape. Seeing this, the other geese flew into a panic. But none had the courage to try to free their king and so flew back to Mount Cittacutta for safety. All except one. He was the chief captain, Sumukha. King Dhatarattha entreated him to fly to safety too, as he would surely be captured if he stayed by his side. But Sumukha replied that he would never desert his master in the face of danger and would either try to save him or die by his side.
At this point the hunter approached and as Sumukha saw him he decided to appeal to his compassion. The hunter asked the golden goose how come he had not noticed the trap that was set. The golden goose replied that when one's time was up it was no use to struggle against what was fated and one must just accept it. The huntsman was very impressed with his grace and wisdom. He then turned to Sumukha and asked why he had hot fled with the other birds even though he was free to do so. Sumukha answered that the golden goose was his king, best friend and master and that he could never desert him even at the cost of his own life. Hearing this, the hunter realised that these were a couple ohare birds of great nobility. He did not much care for his own kings reward and decided to do the right thing and set them free. He told Sumukha. that as he was ready to die for his King he would set them both free to fly wherever they wish.
Why were the geese keen on visiting the lake in Benaras?
A.  They were invited personally by king Bahuputtaka.
B.  They were tired of their old lake.
C.  They were amused by the water lilies and lotuses.
D.  The lake was not very far from the mountains.
E.  The lake was to be a source of good food and protection.
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28 .
Why did the king approach the ministers?
A.  In order to find out the best location for the lake.
B.  In order to find out if a golden goose existed.
C.  To enquire about his wife's dreams.
D.  To devise a plan to capture all rare bird species.
E.  To enquire about the best hunter in the locality.
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29 .
What advice did the ministers give to the king?
A.  That no such golden goose existed and he was only wasting his time searching for one.
B.  To create an artificial golden goose for the queen
C.  To build a lake in order to attract the golden goose.
D.  To open a sanctuary of rare birds for the queen.
E.  To have a beautiful garden surrounded by flowers and trees.
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30 .
Which of the following statements would best describe the qualities of Sumukha?
(A) Betrayer of the flock.
(B) The Selfless Goose.
(C) Loyal towards the king.
(D) The naive and ignorant goose.
A.  Only A
B.  Only B
C.  Only C and D
D.  Only A and D
E.  Only B and C
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31 .
What was the king's intention behind building a lake ?
A.  To attract all rare species of living animals and birds.
B.  To beautify the city of Benaras
C.  He did not want to go against the wishes of his wife.
D.  He wanted to capture the golden goose.
E.  He enjoyed bird watching and wanted to create a natural habitat for them
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32 .
Why did the head hunter release the king, the golden goose?
A.  He was impressed by his wisdom and nobility.
B.  The geese were a rare species of birds.
C.  The golden goose king Dhatarattha promised him a handsome reward
D.  The hunter sympathised with the golden goose.
E.  The hunter did not want the chief captain to lose a friend.
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33 .
Why did the flock of geese panic and retreat to Mount Cittacuta ?
A.  Their king took the wrong route to the lake and they lost their way
B.  Their king, the golden goose was captured.
C.  Their chief captain, Sumukha betrayed the king.
D.  They spotted many hunters by the lake.
E.  None of these
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Passage Completion Reading Comprehension 2


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