Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below. Certain words/phrases are printed in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.
A new analysis has determined that the threat of global warming can still be greatly $diminished$ if nations cut emi ssi ons of heat-trappi ng greenhouse gases by 70% this century. The analysis was done by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). While gl obal temperatures woul d rise, the most dangerous potential aspects of climate change, including massive losses of Arctic sea ice and permafrost and significant sea-level rise, could be partially avoided.
"This research indicates that we can no longer avoid significant warming during this century, " sai d NCAR sci enti st Warren Washington, the study paper's lead author. "But, if the world were to implement this level of emission cuts, we could stabilize thelimate change", he added.
Average global temperatures have warmed by close to 1 degree celsius since the preindustrial era. Much of the warming is due to human-produced emissions of greenhouse gases, $predominantly$ carbon dioxide. This heattrapping gas has increased from a pre-industrial level of about 284 parts per million (ppm) in the atmosphere to more than 380 ppm today. With research showing that additional warming of about 1 degree celsius may be the threshold for dangerous climate change, the European Union has called for dramatic cuts in emission of carbon $dioxide$ and other greenhouse gases.
To examine the impact of such cuts on the world's climate, Washington and his colleagues ran a series of global studies with the NCAR-based Community Climate System Model (CCSM). They assumed that carbon dioxide levels could be held to 450 ppm at the end of this century. In contrast, emissions are now on track to reach about 750 ppm, by 2100 if unchecked. The team's results showed that if carbon dioxide were held to 450 ppm, global temperatures would increase by 0.6 degrees celsius above current readings by the end of the century. In contrast, the study showed that temperatures would rise by at most four times that amount, to 2.2 degree celsius above current readings, if emissions were allowed to continue on their present course. Holding carbon dioxide levels to 450 ppm would have other impacts, according to the climate modelling study. Sea-level rise due to thermal expansion as water temperatures warmed would be 14 centimetres (about 5.5 inches) instead of 22 centimetres (8.7 inches). Also, Arctic ice in the summer time would shrink by about a quarter in volume and $stabilize$ by 2100, as $opposed$ to shrinking at least three- quarters and continuing to melt, and Arctic warming would be reduced by almost half Why has the European Union called for dramatic cuts in carbon dioxi de and greenhouse gas emissions?
[ A ] As global warming is not an issue of concern.
[ B ] As the temperatures may rise almost by an additional one degree and this may lead to severe climate change
[ C ] As the NCAR has forced the European Union to announce the cuts
[ D ] As all the nations have decided to cut emissions of carbon dioxide