Read the following passage carefully andanswer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Using infant mortality as a key indicator of the status of children, we now begin to have the broad features of a hypothesis as to the causes of higher or lower mortality rates One aspect is the $complex$ of factors involving the access of mothers to trained personnel and other facilities for child delivery, the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mother and the quality of health care and nourishment which babies receive. The other aspect, indicated by ruralurban differentials is the possible importance of human settlement patterns in relation to the availability of health care and related facilities such as potable water, excreta disposal systems, etc. Thus in a special sense it is much cheaper to make health and other basic services available to a community when it is densely settled rather than widely dispersed. It is possible to argue, however, that both these sets of factors are closely related to a third one, namely, income levels Poorer mothers and babies have less $access$ to health-care facilities and nourishment than those who are better offurban communities are on an average much better off than rural communities. That economic conditions play a crucial role in determining the status of both mother and child is beyond dispute. But the question really is whether this is the only decisive factor or whether factors such as the availability of medical facilities, health care programmes and nutritional programmes have an independent role. If so, then the pattems which affect service delivery to die mother and child target groups become a $relevant$ consideration. These are clearly issues of some importance for policy and programme planning. Which of the following is not a factor for mortality rate ?